More than thirty years ago, Organ started studying discretionary behaviors in
organizations and some of its possible antecedents (Organ, 1977; Bateman & Organ, 1983; Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983). Since then, research has focused on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB), which encompass several affiliative and promotive behaviors that seek to benefit the organization sustaining the status quo (Morrison & Phelps, 1999). Recently, however, managers and researchers are increasingly interested in behaviors that can help create change (Bettencourt, 2004). In this line, Morrison & Phelps (1999) introduced the concept of taking charge behaviors (TCB). Although there is some evidence that TCB and OCB are different (Chiaburu & Baker, 2006), there is still little clarity on the antecedents of TCB and if they differ from the antecedents of OCB.